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V. V. ATUCHIN1,2,3,4,* , V. L. BEKENEV5, YU. A. BOROVLEV6, E. N. GALASHOV7, O. Y. KHYZHUN5, A.S. KOZHUKHOV8,9, L. D. POKROVSKY1, V.N. ZHDANKOV10
- Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
- Functional Electronics Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
- Laboratory of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
- Institute of Chemistry, Tyumen State University, Tyumen 625003, Russia
- Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, NAS of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, Kiev UA-03142, Ukraine
- Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090, Russia
- Department of of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
- Laboratory of Nanodiagnostics and Nanolithography, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090, Russia
- Laboratory of Nanosuperconductivity, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
- CML Ltd, 3 Lavrentiev Aven., Novosibirsk 90, 630090, Russia
The large optical-quality MWO4 (M = Zn, Cd) crystals of mass up to 14 (ZnWO4) and 20 (CdWO4) kg were grown by Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski Technique (LTG Cz). Crystallographic properties of MWO4(010) cleaved surface were evaluated by AFM and RHEED, and electronic structure of the surface was studied using XPS. A system of Kikuchi lines has been observed for cleaved MWO4(010) by RHEED confirming high crystallographic quality of the surface. The XPS valence-band and core-level spectra of MWO4(010) have been measured. The XPS measurements reveal that W and M atoms are in the formal valences 6+ and 2+, respectively, on cleaved MWO4(010) surface..
Czochralski growth; ZnWO4 ; CdWO4 ; RHEED, AFM; XPS; Electronic structure.
Submitted at: Feb. 26, 2016
Accepted at: Feb. 10, 2017
V. V. ATUCHIN, V. L. BEKENEV, YU. A. BOROVLEV, E. N. GALASHOV, O. Y. KHYZHUN, A.S. KOZHUKHOV, L. D. POKROVSKY, V.N. ZHDANKOV, Low thermal gradient Czochralski growth of large MWO4 (M = Zn, Cd) crystals, and microstructural and electronic properties of the (010) cleaved surfaces, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Vol. 19, Iss. 1-2, pp. 86-90 (2017)
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